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Google Scholar

Google Scholar provides a convenient way to track citations.  If you are working with a particular book or journal article and you are interested in finding out who in the academic community has cited that book or article in their own work, then Google Scholar can be a helpful tool to use.

Here are some basic steps to follow to use Google Scholar to track citations:

  1. Open the Google Scholar Web page at
  2. From the book or article that you are interested in, enter the author’s name and a significant word or two from the title into the search box (no punctuation should be necessary), and then hit the search button.
  3. On the search results page find the specific book or article that you are researching.  (Note:  Google Scholar indexes a wide variety of works from numerous academic fields, but it is not comprehensive, so your book or article may not appear.  However if it does not, make sure to check your search terms for accuracy.)
  4. At the bottom of the listing for the book or article there will be a link that says “cited by n,” where n is the number of works indexed by Google Scholar that cite the book or article that you are researching.  (The ‘cited by’ link is not included for books or articles without any citation totals).  Clicking on this link will produce a list of works that cite the book or article that you are researching.

Detailed instructions for using Google Scholar are included in the ‘Scholar help’ link on its home page.

Note that the citations indexed by Google Scholar are not restricted to academic journal articles, but also might include citations in books (both academic and popular), conference proceedings, dissertations, and research reports.  Realize, too, that Google Scholar has been criticized by some of its users for not providing broad enough coverage of sources.  Also, make sure to double check the citation lists, because Google Scholar occasionally includes duplicate citations or misidentifies them in some fashion.